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凡与圣 Ordinary Beings and Noble Ones

导读:Part 2: Walking The Path 第2篇:行道2-3. Stages of Practice 修学阶段  2-3-6. ALL TREASURES ARE WITHIN : BE ABLE TO SORT THEM OUT 本有家珍?犹欠筛在  2-3-6-1. Ordinary Beings and Noble Ones 凡与圣  (GHOSTS AND ANGELS 鬼与神) ...

  Part 2: Walking The Path 第2篇:行道

  2-3. Stages of Practice 修学阶段


  2-3-6-1. Ordinary Beings and Noble Ones 凡与圣


  When seeing things like this, we might come to a new understanding concerning the beliefs we hold. What, for example, does the word ’ghost’ mean ? A ghost is someone who thinks, speaks and acts bad. And an angel is someone who thinks, speaks and acts well. What people generally understand is another thing. But in reality, if we take a look at the way we use (Thai) language, we’ll see the sharpness of the people in the old days who really knew and we’ll understand things in the right way. For example, we call some children who are hard to teach and only think in evil ways, ’little demons’. Even of older people it is sometimes said that they are like demons. This is just convention ; the one who calls somebody else a demon has never seen a demon oneself. We should understand convention properly in order to really understand the Dhamma.


  People from the past taught that heaven is in the heart, hell is in the mind and so is Nibbana ; this is right but we don’t look within and won’t accept it. Other than that, it was taught in the old days that the treasures of heaven and Nibbana are the treasures of human beings. The treasure of a human being refers to the treasure of being a human being, of not being an animal. The treasure of a human being is wisdom, knowing how to think, remember and cultivate ; animals can’t do this. But what is interesting is that some people have a human body but their minds might be minds of animals, hungry ghosts, hell beings or thick-headed demons. That’s how it is ; some people have human faces but their minds are the minds of angels or gods. Not only that, but they also are able to be a Noble one.


  (ANIMALS 畜牲)

  What do we understand an animal to be ? When we try to understand, we’ll see that it is convention again. Animals don’t wear clothes because they don’t have shame. If people think, speak and act in evil ways, without shame, they are called animals. It’s their minds that are animals, not their bodies. These kind of animals don’t have a sense of shame because they don’t see their own minds.

  When one isn’t ashamed to oneself, how can one feel shame towards others ? That’s why this kind of mind is the mind of an animal, it’s the mind of a hungry ghost, of a hell-being and of a thick-headed demon.




  According to the books, thick-headed demons are weak and cowardly beings, but I say that these demons are beings that are far, very far away from the teachings of the Buddha. Even when we try to teach them and are close to them, they don’t hear because they’re far from the truth, they don’t know how to practice. When they are taught they don’t accept it ; on being told to do something, they won’t do it ; tell them how to develop awareness and they won’t do it, they just think about other things and when one explains the Dhamma to them, they haven’t got a clue.


  The Dhamma has arisen in my mind but I don’t talk like the books. The Dhamma is the supreme attainment for human beings, ordinary human beings don’t have the opportunity to understand it, unless they follow the procedure, that is first to train in developing awareness until it is firm and steadfast and destroys deluded views. Then knowledge will come.



  Let’s have a look at hungry ghosts. It is said that no matter how much a hungry ghost eats, he or she is never satisfied. Even monks and novices can be like this : having eaten in the eating hall is not enough ; some sneak off to their huts to eat some more ; this type of monk or novice can be taken to be a hungry ghost. I’ve seen this behaviour with my own eyes. When I was a novice, I once saw a monk mischievously hold back sweets and fruit to eat in his room, even though he had no ownership over it. These are characteristics of a hungry ghost. One can have the body and face of a monk and wear brown robes but one’s mind can be a hungry ghost. Physicly there is a person but mentally there is a hungry ghost, a ghostly person. Another characteristic of hungry ghosts is that they are liable to decieve others. So there are many types of hungry ghosts ; their minds have accumulated heaps of various defilements.


  In reality, the mind or life is something clean, bright and peaceful but there are plenty of defilements that suck and stick to it, which make it dark and blind : a hungry ghost !


  (HELL-BEINGS 地狱众生)

  Having talked about hungry ghosts, we’ll talk about hell-beings next. Hell-beings are people who easily get angry, they are anxious, agitated and restless. These characteristics could also be ascribed to a mange dog. A mange dog, no matter where it lays down, has an itch all the time and it keeps running around in the most pitiful way, it can’t stay where it is ; wherever it lays down it is not at ease.


  Let me compare it with someone developing awareness ; it’s not long and one goes to chat with this and that person, the mind is like a mange dog, like a hell- being. Don’t accuse me of insulting when I talk like this. I’m just speaking the truth. Ponder this well and don’t make yourself into a hell-being or animal, don’t allow anger or hatred in the mind.


  The characteristics of feeling agitation when reproved and seeking out those who speak to one’s liking, are the characteristics of a hell-being, an animal and someone who doesn’t have a peaceful mind, the mind is hot all the time. What is even more pitiable is that a mange dog won’t accept help, even when we mean well. To give an example ; if you see a mange dog lying in the cold, try giving it a nice warm blanket : it won’t accept it and will even run off. People are the same : I know plenty of people who don’t accept teachings that are beneficial - just like a mange dog. Whoever is intelligent understands these comparisons. One shouldn’t let oneself or one’s mind become a mange dog ; we must determine to practice to the utmost and develop awareness, and be the number 1 rice ; then we will have the treasures of a human being, of heaven and of Nibbana. Don’t wait for these things to be given by a ghost or an angel, don’t even wait for the Buddha to bestow them on you.


  The first level of effort that we have to make is to build up awareness throughout our lives. If we don’t develop awareness ourselves, we won’t see, know and understand.



  When awareness is complete, one sees, knows and understands; it is called seeing for oneself, understanding by oneself and one is a real follower of the Buddha, a Noble one.


  We chant in the verses about the disciples of the Buddha : SUPATIPANNO BHAGAVATO SAVAKASANGHO, which means : the group of disciples of the Blessed one, practice well. To practice well indicates being a true follower and a Noble person. All of us, including laypeople can be Noble. Someone who practices is a follower, however many. UJUPATIPANNO BHAGAVATO SAVAKASANGHO means the group of disciples of the Blessed one, practice straightly. To practice straight means straight in line with the Buddha’s teachings, in line with the group and in line with one’s actions ; not just following one’s moods, not lazy, desirous and easily angered and carried away.

  我们用诗偈来赞颂佛陀的弟子:“Supatipanno Bhagavato Savakasangho”,意思是说:佛陀的弟子,修行得很好。“修行得很好”意思是说他们成了真正的弟子与圣者。我们所有人,包括在家众都可以成为圣者。某些修行人是真正的弟子,然而很多不是。“Ujupatipanno Bhagavato Savakasangho”意思是:佛陀的弟子直道而行。“直道而行”意思是不歪曲,与佛陀教导的一致,与僧团一致且与他的言行一致,他们修行不是看自己的心情而定,不偷懒、不欲贪、不易怒和不激动。

  YAYAPATIPANNO BHAGAVATO SAVAKASANGHO : the group of disciples of the Blessed one, practice for the overcoming of suffering. This means that one practices until one sees the origin of the thinking mind. Developing awareness is the means or method to do that. To develop means to do it a lot,until one knows and sees the Dhamma - it’s not just talking about it. To see the Dhamma is to see one’s present actions, present speech and present thoughts - that’s seeing the Dhamma ! The Dhamma exists in everyone without exception, regardless of what nationality one may have or religion one may believe in.

  Try and really watch the mind ; when seeing the mind thinking, one knows : hey, this is suffering ! When a thought comes up to go here or there, one knows this is suffering. Every time thought arises, immediately know that it is suffering arising. Watch and see this in your mind. The Buddha teaches that it’s only suffering that arises, only suffering that establishes itself and only suffering that passes away. Here it is, suffering !

  “Yayapatipanno Bhagavato Savakasangho” 意思是说:佛陀的弟子,修行是为了灭苦。这意思也就是说,一个人修行是要看见(了悟)这思量之心的源头。培养觉性是修行的手段或方法。“培养”的意思是精进练习直到悟法及见法为止——而不是空谈而已。“见法”是看见自己当下的动作、当下的言语及当下的念头——这就叫见法!法存在于每一个人之中,不论是什么国籍或信什么宗教都一样,人人本具,无一不有。我们要努力观照自心:每当看见心起念时,要知道:“嘿!这是苦!”每当念头生起,跑到这里或跑去那里的时候,要知道:“这是苦!”每次念头一生起,要当下知道:“这是苦生起!”要观照自心并且在自己心中看见这个(苦)。佛陀教导说:一切只是苦生、只是苦住、只是苦灭。一切唯是苦!

  SAMICIPATIPANNO BHAGAVATO SAVAKASANGHO translates as the group of disciples of the Blessed one, practice appropriately. To practice appropriately is to not practice wrongly, not to lose the way but to really walk the path of the Buddha. Whoever practices like this is called one who practices appropiately. YADIDAM means the following individuals. CATTARI PURISAYUGANI ATTHA PURISAPUGGALA means the 4 pairs or 8 kinds of Noble individuals. An individual is a person so it could be a man or a woman, it refers to the 4 stages of Enlightenment, each divided in path and fruit : stream-entry path, stream-entry fruit, once-return path and fruit, non-return path and fruit, and Arahant path and fruit. So the Buddha says. ESA BHAGHAVATO SAVAKASANGHO - these are the Blessed one’s disciples, namely those who practice well, straight, their practice is the means to go beyond suffering - that is the Sangha. AHUNEYYO, PAHUNEYYO, DAKKHINEYYO, ANJALIKARANIYO, ANUTTARAM PUNYAGETAM LOKASSA, in English, it means they are the highest field of merit in the world, there is nothing higher than that. Field of merit in the world means that when someone goes to see them, they have to teach that person, really teach, teach the truth.

  “Samicipatipanno Bhagavato Savakasangho”译为:佛陀的弟子适当地修行。所谓“适当地修行”意即不是错误的修行,不迷失入于歧途,而真实地行于佛陀教导的正道,任何人像这样修行就称为适当地修行。“Yadidam”意思是:以下这些人。“Cattari Purisayugani Attha Purisapuggala”意思是四对或八种人(四双八辈)。所谓“人”可以是男人或女人,这里是特指四种证悟的层次,每一种又分为“向”和“果”,亦即佛陀所说的:入流向、入流果;一来向、一来果;不来向、不来果及阿罗汉向、阿罗汉果。“Esa Bhaghavato Savakasangho”这句意思是说:这些是佛陀的弟子。也就是说,凡是修得很好、直道而行并藉修行方便以灭苦的人——他们便是僧伽,便是佛陀的弟子。“Ahuneyyo, Pahuneyyo, Dakkhineyyo,Anjalikaraniyo, Anuttaram Punyagetam Lokassa”,用英文来说,这句的意思是:他们是世间最高的福田,是至高无上的。他们为何是“世间最高的福田”呢?因为当有人去看他们(或供养他们)时,他们会教导那个人——真正地教导——教导真理。